The teenage years are a time of transition from childhood to adulthood. Teens have a strong desire for independence, but often still need adults’ support. They may feel overwhelmed by the emotional and physical changes they are going through, as well as new social environments and relationships.
While it’s normal for teens to experience some emotional ups and downs, some young people experience more extreme mood swings or extended periods of stress, anxiety, or depression. In these cases, they may need professional support or treatment to help them manage these feelings.
Common Mental Health Issues Affecting Teenagers
Periods of stress and moodiness are normal and are especially common during the teen years. In many cases, these changes are temporary and do not have a major effect on day to day life at school or at home.
However, prolonged periods of worry or sadness (more than 2 weeks) could be a sign of a more serious mental health issue.
The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that 49.5% of adolescents will experience mental illness at some point. The following chart lists the most common mental health issues teens experience.
|Excessive worry about everyday matters; persistent stress and/or fears that affect their ability to participate in school or enjoy everyday activities|
|Social phobias||Severe feelings of self-consciousness and insecurity; fear of rejection, humiliation, and embarrassment in social settings|
|Depression||Persistent feelings of sadness, loneliness, anxiety, hopelessness, and/or emptiness|
Other, sometimes related mental health issues found in teenagers are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), panic attacks, and eating disorders. In efforts to cope, teens may also develop dependencies substances, like alcohol and other drugs. More severe mental illnesses include bipolar depression or schizophrenia.
Common Causes of Mental Health Issues
Changes in a teen’s mental health can be caused by different factors, including:
- Hormone changes – natural chemical changes caused by physical and brain development
- Heredity – having a family history of mental illness
- Environmental factors – problems or traumatic incidents at home or school, abuse, bullying
- Transitions – changes in home, school, relationships, or family life
- Stress – worry caused by external triggers, including academic pressure, social situations, or other factors
Why It’s Important for Parents and Caregivers to Know
Mental health issues in teens can be hard to identify for several reasons. First, teens are already undergoing lots of changes as a natural part of growing up. Teens naturally need more space and independence, so they may be less likely to come to you with problems or concerns. Also, they may not understand or be able to explain how they feel or why they are behaving a certain way.
As a result, many teens who could benefit from treatment don’t get the help they need. Left untreated, mental health challenges can cause problems at school, substance misuse, unsafe sex, and other issues
Take this brief survey to learn the common warning signs of mental health disorders in teens, and how you can help your child.
The following lists some of the common warning signs of mental health issues in teens. Warning signs will vary, depending on the child and the condition. Check any symptoms your child has experienced for two weeks or longer.
- Persistent sadness
- Avoiding or withdrawing from social interactions
- Angry outbursts or extreme irritability
- Behavior that is harmful to self or others
- Poor personal hygiene (not bathing, not caring about their appearance)
- Major changes in mood, behavior or personality
- Loss of motivation; lack of interest in usual hobbies or activities
- Avoiding friends or social situations
- Fatigue / Changes in energy levels
- Changes in appetite, eating habits
- Significant weight loss or gain
- Changes in sleep patterns, insomnia or sleeping too much
- Frequent unexplained headaches, stomachaches, or other pains
- Difficulty with concentration or memory
- Changes in grades or academic performance
- Avoiding or missing school
- Hurting oneself or talking about hurting oneself
- Talking about death or suicide
If you checked more than five behaviors, and they have been ongoing for longer than 2 weeks, your child may benefit from an initial evaluation by a doctor or mental health professional. Contact your child’s school counselor or your family’s healthcare provider to discuss your concerns.
Connect & Communicate:
Mental health issues in teens are common and treatable. Often, however, parents and caregivers don’t share their concerns with their child for many months. They may feel that, “It’s just a phase.” or “My child will grow out of it.” Adults may also worry that the conversation will result in a conflict with their child.
If your child seems unusually stressed, or if there’s been a major shift in their behavior that lasts over 2 weeks, it’s important to open a conversation with them. Talking with your teen about their mental health may be uncomfortable at first. But, it’s important to share your observations calmly and get your teen’s input. Here are some examples:
- “I’ve noticed you haven’t been spending much time with your friends lately. I just wanted to check whether everything is going okay.”
- “You haven’t had much of an appetite these days. I was wondering if there might be something bothering you?”
- “You’ve been staying up pretty late and you seem kind of stressed out. Are you worried about anything?”
Your teen may become angry or annoyed, or may respond that nothing is wrong. Often teens feel confused or embarrassed by the symptoms they’re experiencing. If this is the case, ….
It’s also possible he or she will be relieved that you have raised the subject. In many cases, teens realize they are struggling, but are unsure how to talk about what they’re experiencing.
- Reassure your teen that you are there to support them and encourage them to come to you with questions and concerns.
- Spend time with your teen and seek ways to relax, have fun, and strengthen your bond with them. Praise your child’s strengths and abilities.
- Help your teen focus on their physical health, too. Make sure they get enough sleep and exercise and are eating a balanced diet.
- Explore stress management techniques to support your child’s and your own mental health and help you respond calmly.
Contact & Collaborate:
As a parent or caregiver, you have an important role in supporting your teen’s mental wellbeing. If you think your teen may have a mental health issue, reach out and get the support you need to help them feel better.
- If your teen’s mental illness is at a crisis level (e.g., they have harmed [or threatened to harm] themselves or others), call 911 or go to your local emergency room.
- Schedule an appointment with your primary care doctor: Let the doctor know your concerns and give your teen the opportunity to speak to the doctor in private. The doctor may recommend a follow-up appointment with a mental health professional.
- Work with your teen’s guidance counselor, the school nurse, and other school personnel to secure necessary support.
- Ask the school psychologist, therapist or other mental health professional for advice on how to respond to your child and handle difficult behavior.
- Contact other trusted adults in your teen’s life (relatives, clergy, teacher, sports coach) so they can help support him or her, too.
- Consider family counseling with a licensed therapist.
- Reach out to your health insurance or state/county mental health authority for more support.
- Set important phone numbers on your own and your teen’s phone, for example:
- The phone number for a trusted friend or relative
- The Crisis Text Line: 741741
- The non-emergency number for the local police department
- The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
You will play an important role in ongoing support and monitoring of your teen’s mental health.
- Enroll in parent support groups or training programs, especially those designed for parents of children with a mental illness.
- If treatment has been recommended for your teen (e.g., therapy or medication) support them with managing and maintaining their treatment plan
- Continue to learn and stay up-to-date on mental health topics with these resources :
- Mental Health.gov Parent and Caregivers page
- National Institute of Health Children and Mental Health page
- National Alliance for Mental Illness Learning to Help Your Child and Your Family